Pectoralis Minor

pectoralis minor

Pectoralis Minor

Origin: Anterior surfaces of 3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs near the costal cartilages

Insertion: Coracoid process of the scapula.

Action: Depresses scapula and rotates scapula downward. Important anterior shoulder stabilizer.

Reversed origin-insertion action: With a fixed scapula, pectoralis minor helps rib elevation during forced inspiration.

Synergists:  Pectoralis major, serratus anterior

Muscles of the Shoulder


shoulder musclesWe often think of muscles of the shoulder as what is directly at the shoulder site for example deltoids. It would be more beneficial to your health, motion and results if you thought of shoulder muscles as all the muscles that impact your motion at the shoulder joint.

Below is the list of these muscles.

Deltoids – Anterior, Middle & Posterior

Pectoralis – Major (Sternal & Clavicular Divisions)


Latissimus Dorsi

Teres Major



Teres Minor



Anterior Deltoid

Anterior Deltoid

Origin: Anterosuperior border of the lateral 1/3 of the clavicle.

Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus on the anterolateral surface just above the midshaft.

Action: Abduction, horizontal flexion and medial rotation of the humerus at the shoulder.

Synergists:  Middle and posterior deltoid, supraspinatus and pectoralis major clavicular division.

Back Exercises

Back Exercises

When you plan your back exercise, you really need a game plan to make sure that you gain mass and strengths without sacrificing stability, mobility or function.  To do this effectively, we being with the major muscles involved in three zones – Upper back, middle back and lower back. We also look at different angles of force. As you change the angle of force, you change the muscles involved.


Arm Exercises

Arm Exercises

The “why” often helps you get results more than the “how” and arm exercise is not an exception.

Below are four exercises in a row you can perform to sculpt, tone and strengthen your arms. The “how” of this lesson is focused on the sequence of compound movements first and isolation movements second.

The first exercise of the series is a single arm row which is a compound movement engaging multiple joints, multiple muscles and serves many objectives from helping you lose weight to helping you do pull ups.  One of the muscles that you engage in this motion is your biceps.   This motion is done with heavier load that matches your big muscles and multiple joint abilities.

After you are done with a single arm row, you move to a biceps curl which is an isolation movement engaging a single joint of your elbow with focus on your biceps. If you reverse this process, you tire your biceps and limit your ability to perform the single arm row.

Neck Exercises

neck exercises

The following are three points to keep in mind during your neck exercises.

  1. Neck Alignment
  2.  Neck Mobility
  3. Neck Strength

Without alignment, you either won’t be able to move your neck or you move it in harmful ways.  Without your ability to move your neck within its natural range of motion, adding strength will just increases your tightness and your chance of injury.

The most common of neck misalignment is forward head posture. Watch the video below on what forward head posture  is, why  correction of this neck misalignment is called  an anti-ageing neck exercise.